Pub Theology 10/15/13: Thoughts on Christianity, Faith and Zombie culture
Survival Lesson #10: ZOMBIE MAYBE GONE, BUT THE THREAT LIVES ON…
“The walking dead attack churches for one good reason: It’s where the food is. Despite their education, technical savvy, and professed disinterest in the spiritual world, urban Americans run, screaming to their gods, at the first sight of zombies. These places of worship, crammed with people loudly praying for their souls, have always served as beacons for the undead.”
– Brooks (p.82)
Learning to live in a new environment, whether post-apocalyptic or post-Christian, you must first survive before you can expect to thrive. As I stand, miles down the road looking back, I am surprised at where the past two years have taken me. I owe much credit to these changes also to my fellow classmates and professors in the MAGL program. They have been better traveling companions that I could have ever asked for, and many will be lifelong friends. Dallas Willard referred to personal development and inner transformation as a “spirit-driven process of forming the inner world of the human self in such a way that it becomes like the inner being of Christ himself” (Willard Renovation of the Heart p. 22). This spirit-driven process has turned a cynical and jaded pastor with a profound distrust and distain for the institutional church into a new church planter. I have been refined, cultivated and developed as a leader walking humbly towards this new endeavor. In the next few months, I will be moving across the country and planting a church in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. I would have never found myself in this position if it were not for the MAGL program; these past two years have been revolutionary in my life.
Moving forward, I see that planting a church in a post-Christian and globalized world is not without its difficulties. Becoming an intentional and incarnational leader that equips a community living in the shadow of these new realities requires rethinking church in terms of diversity, hierarchy, and spirituality. If we are truly to become a church that is both missional and transformational, then we must become incarnational at all costs. Christian ministry in the 21st century is much like surviving a zombie apocalypse. We are not called to be safe; we are called to be survivors that live on mission under the auspice of Christ. “The Christian… does not claim that the world is safe, but only that it is under God’s lordship” (Newbigin A Community of Character p.101). Lastly, “no matter what happens to the surviving humans, there will always be the walking dead,” (Brooks p.157) we just don’t have to be one of them.
Survival Lesson #9: GET OUT OF THE CAR, GET ONTO THE BIKE.
“Joy, sadness, confidence, anxiety, love, hatred, fear-all of these feelings and thousands more that make up the human “heart” are as useless to the living dead as the organ of the same name. Who knows if this is humanity’s greatest weakness or strength? The debate continues, and probably will forever.”
– Brooks (p.15)
When living at the end of the world, context is everything. With most decisions seeming like life and death, having the correct perspective is always key. Remember that danger is real, but fear is a choice. Knowing this distinction makes all the difference and will keep you focused in the moment. As with church, a shift towards centered living needs to happen. After rethinking diversity and hierarchy, we must lastly, rethink our approach to spirituality. “In our busy, noisy world silence is essential to providing a space so that we might notice and pause long enough to hear God speak” (Schwanda The Transforming Power of Silence in Personal Prayer and Public Worship). Church in the west has become either about ritual or production; one focuses on tradition, the other entertainment. They both incorporate Christ, but neither does so as a focal point. We need a return to the monastic way of being. By monastic, I mean a communal existence exemplified by prayful, contemplation and intentional living that is centered on the teaching of Christ.
The church must return to the heart of the gospel. In this monastic approach, the spiritual disciplines of Christianity have to be revisited: prayer, meditation, fasting, and living communally with one another. Embracing these practices moves the church from being an institution into being a social movement. It also clears space in our lives for God to speak and move. Living in the post-Christian nation, we are called to live intentionally and act different. “This new way embodies “the never-ending interplay of repentance and remembrance, condemnation and celebration, proclamation and practice” (Ramachandra Faiths in Conflict? p. 171).
As we look at the beginnings of our church plant, all of our actions will be grounded in these disciplines. It is in this place where we submit ourselves to the Lord and commit our lives to one another in community. It is in this place where we will live out the incarnational reality of Christ. I believe that this is a starting place for transformation. “We need to become people who work as if it all depends of God – because it does, and because that is the best possible news” (Crouch Culture Making p.99).
Survival Lesson #6: IDEAL PROTECTION = TIGHT CLOTHES, SHORT HAIR.
“Remember; no matter how desperate the situation seems, time spent thinking clearly is never time wasted.” – Brooks (p.87)
When facing a zombie apocalypse, having a well thought out survival strategy is your best bet to make sure you face another tomorrow. Decisions made in haste rarely work out. For instance, in an impulsive moment you think it is a good idea to light the zombies on fire to slow their pursuit. But then quickly realize that you still have zombies after you, only now they are flaming zombies. Earlier, we mentioned the Ten Lessons for Surviving a Zombie Attack, these are a good starting point. Follow them carefully if you want to experience any modicum of success. Deviate from it and there’s no telling how brief your existence will become. Consistency is key to longevity.
Likewise for the church, consistency is needed in the wake of our changing world. This shifting paradigm can either be met with excitement or fear. To alleviate that fear, it is helpful to have a few rules to live by as we begin our new journey. Becoming a transformative and missional church doesn’t simply happen. It must be cultivated. Samuel Escobar, in his book The New Global Mission, asserts that mission starts in the heart of God. If this is true, then all we must do is faithfully respond to God’s mission as a people who are sent into the world. To respond to God’s mission, Escobar offers us six simple truths that will act as marching orders into the future of our church. They are in harmony with our aforementioned post-Christian and globalized reality blended with the discussion about the key attributes of a transformational and missional church. They are as follows:
- The faith of the powerful is irrelevant, and mission has to be characterized by servanthood.
- The gospel is a source of liberating power.
- Faith is a spiritual combat.
- The Western interpretation of Scripture is not the final word.
- God is experienced as an awe-inspiriting divine mystery.
- The power of the faith community is in the laity.
(from The New Global Mission p. 164)
There are many places we can begin in our road map towards a missional and transformative church, but the surest starting point, if we are hoping to effect change, must begin with the role of leader. If mission begins with God and manifests itself with his people, the leader is the spiritual middle man in this equation. The heart of the leader is the key place to begin our journey towards renovation of the church.
The following sections will give a brief overview of three key changes that leaders must embrace if they are to cultivate missional and transformational churches in the 21st century. These key changes will also guide me as I begin this new church plant. Rethinking diversity, hierarchy and spirituality at the leadership level will act as the epicenter for a catalytic move towards change…
Survival Lesson #5: NO PLACE IS SAFE, ONLY SAFER.
(Learning to be Missional)
“Somnambulists [sleepwalkers] are the greatest threat to humanity, other than humanity itself” – Brooks (xii)
Although each zombie attack is different, one thing always remains constant; there is strength in numbers. The living survivors must band together and work in unison as never before. Social status and standing are gone; the old ways of a world have passed away. In the new economy, we must gather together, working in unison to facing the zombie hordes. Venturing out alone can often mean sudden death.
In the same sense, when it comes to the life of faith, we were created to be in community with others. Life should be lived together. Too long have institutional churches been known for doing church as opposed to being the church. We must become less about programming and more about sharing space. The original genius of Christ can be seen in the fact that he left the earth before he established the church. He knew that if he had stayed behind, the church would have never grown much beyond him. It started in the hands of a simple group of people because Jesus always meant for the church to be about community. That was then, and if we look at the focus of Western Church today, it looks much like this diagram (from McLaren‘s A Generous Orthodoxy p.117):
Here, church has become all about the individual. Once we lose the communal nature of church, it becomes a service driven institution. Only ‘service’ is not the same type of service we mentioned in the last section. Service in this context can be likened to that of a commodity. Church now produces a product for Christian consumers. In this paradigm, church exits to serve the Christian and has little impact on the world around it. Pastors are paid to keep congregants happy and hopefully attract new ones so the church can pay the bills. This may be a crude way to put it, but at its base level, this is the hard truth.
When we look at the Bible, a diagram (from McLaren’s A Generous Orthodoxy p.118) that closer resembles Christ’s original call (the Great Commission), shifts to look like this:
With this shift, the church exists to reach out to the world and the individual exists to serve the church. This is the paramount shift. “To be chosen, to be elect, therefore does not mean that the elect are the saved and the rest are the lost. To be the elect in Christ Jesus… means to be incorporated into his mission to the world, to be the bearer of God’s saving purpose for the whole world” (Newbigin The Gospel in a Pluralist Society 1336).
Too often, like the living dead, we have become like sleepwalkers, making our way through life without asking questions or challenging the way things are – even if those ways are wrong. For the church to shift from the first diagram to the second, it must take on the mantle of John the Baptist. In knowing Christ, John saw a new reality and stated, “He [Christ] must become greater; I must become less” (John 3:30 TNIV). As the Church we are called to be a sign of the kingdom that, like John the Baptist, points towards the present reality of Christ. Either we believe that the Gospel exists for us (believers) or we believe that the Gospel exists for others. Whichever one you follow has great implications upon your walk as a Christian; both having profoundly different trajectories.
In Genesis, God called to Abraham and said, “I will surely bless you… and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed” (Genesis 22:17,18 TNIV). Abraham was promised blessings, and also that his descendants would be a blessing to the world. We are blessed and but also called to be a blessing to the world. As I journey forward, my missional heart will be at the core of who we are as a new church plant. We, as a church community, must overcome the “me” culture that has lead the West into a post-Christian state and focus it back to the “we” culture epitomized by the early church. The number one problem with the church today is not globalization or the shift in Christianity; we are the problem. As Christ followers, we have made the church about our own selfish desires and pursuits. If we are to be a church that is both transformative and missional at heart, we must understand that everything centers on Jesus, not ourselves. “Christianity means community through Jesus Christ and in Jesus Christ. No Christian community is more or less than this” (Bonhoeffer Life Together p.21). When walking towards planting this church, I feel this quote wonderfully focuses on what the heart of any church must be grounded on: Christ.
In the next section, we will outline a roadmap towards freedom. It will involve us rethinking the way we look at church and cultivate leadership. These will be the steps that guide us to being a church that is both missional and transformative…
Survival Lesson #3: BLADES DON’T NEED RELOADING.
(The Reality of Globalization)
“During the Qin Dynasty, all books not relating to practical concerns such as agriculture or construction were ordered burned by the emperor to guard against “dangerous thought.” Whether accounts of zombie attacks perished in the flames will never be known.” – Brooks (p.168)
When living in an undead world with its devastated landscape and limited supplies, you must adopt new rules for survival. For instance, when thinking of weapons for defense, conventional items like guns are no longer your best choice. In a pinch they do the job, but typically they are too loud and attract other zombies. They are also in a constant need of ammunition. Think about axes or machetes. They don’t need to be reloaded. In this new existence, old conventions must be rethought in order to succeed in this new reality.
In a similar shift, globalization is taking over our world with an unprecedented fury. “The shift in global Christianity has already occurred. The shift in American evangelicalism is well under way” (Rah The Next Evangelicalism p.191). Not only do we find ourselves living in a post-Christian nation, but globalization is also impacting the face of culture and, vicariously, Christianity. The face of Christianity is experiencing a movement towards the global south. This means that the Western influence of Christianity is waning in the wake of the rise of the Global South (Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania). The world is changing and the way we engage ministry must change with it. We are no longer the Western Church; we are now the Global Church.
“Globalization and the emergence of the worldwide theater has torn down geographical boundaries” (Lyons The Next Christians p. 20). Missionaries are now coming from around the world to evangelize the lost in the United States. There are no longer foreign missions; the world itself is now a mission field. You no longer need to travel far distances to experience foreign peoples; they are now living in our neighborhoods. “The majority of the world’s non-Christians will not be geographically distant people but culturally distant peoples who often reside together in the shadows of urban spires in the metro areas of every continent” (Bakke Theology as Big as the City p.18). Missions now happen as we reach out to our neighbors in and around our cities.
With the growing impact of globalization, many things change, but our desire and need for relationships remain and, even quite possibly, escalate in this new globalized world. Relational intimacy is quickly becoming the new world equity. Institutions no longer hold the power and if we hope to make change and spread the gospel, it will happen one relationship at a time. This is the core of influence now; it is no longer about wealth or power. In the West, we must learn to listen more to others from around the globe because of this is a paradigm shift. We no longer have all of the answers, and our old ways are no longer working. There is a learning posture that we must take up as evangelicals because “the Gospel speaks to people of every culture and is translatable to every culture” (Escobar The New Global Mission p.12). This learning posture will lead us to engaging in cross culture ministry reaching out to people in our own context. We must approach others with open hands. Philip Jenkins spoke of the churches from the Global South as being characterized as, “churches [that] preach deep personal faith and communal orthodoxy, mysticism and puritanism, all founded on scriptural authority” (Jenkins The Next Christendom 3696). To Western churches their approaches may seem simplistic, but there is a power to a faith that travels light. This new face of Christian spirituality centers around a God that of the present and meets the needs of today as opposed to a God is only focused on eternity.
Diversity is not a word I would use to describe any of my experiences in ministry, much less put the word global in front of it. I have worked for predominantly white churches and ministries. They have been focused domestically where most of the informed practices we followed were from older traditions that were shaped over time in a small community. Entering into the MAGL program, I was ecstatic to have the honor of being classmates and friends with varied pastors and missionaries from around the world. Seeing ministry and theology from their perspectives has changed and enriched mine. This new globalized Christianity makes more sense to my heart than the institutionalized version I had grown weary of.
Globalization has broken down the walls and doors of the mission field. It not only changes where we do ministry, but how we do ministry. This past summer I was sitting down with Joel Sengoga, a Rwandan pastor, speaking to him about my journey with church planting. I had become overwhelmed with all that needed to be accomplished and he quickly stopped me, saying, “Stuart, you Americans over think everything. It’s not always about planning. Faith is simply taking the next step God has in front of you.” Joel’s way of looking at ministry was so simple, yet profound and deeply biblical. I had become caught up in organizational minutiae and lost God in the process. The truth of the Gospel exists in its profound simplicity. I was reminded that we must be a part of the “rediscovery of the original genius of the teaching of Jesus and the missional practice of the earliest Christians all lived out boldly on the soil of a post-Christian empire” (Frost Exiles p.26).
So we are caught in a world that is both globalized and post-Christian. This may seem like a problem for many, but these two new realities are creating resurgence towards the raw power of the Gospel – people moving in faith by the power of the Holy Spirit. As it was said before, people do not fear change, they fear loss. Loss is happening, but it is nothing compared to the exponential gains that are waiting for us. The power lies in what happens after we come to grips with this loss. Things are not what they used to be, but there is hope that tomorrow is vastly better than yesterday. These new realities bring with them new possibilities. It is because of this, that I am excited about my endeavor into church planting. I’m beginning to see the sheer simplicity and power of the Gospel in new ways. I am learning to now be awake to God’s presence and the possibilities that are springing up around me as I take that next step of faith. It has brought about a new sense of clarity.
With these new realities in our world today, how does the church thrive in the face of a post-Christian and globalized world? The church must learn to become transformational and missional, not to merely survive, but to thrive. The days of striving are gone. There is hope for what is around the corner, and there is great excitement as we begin to look at the solutions…
Survival Lesson #2: THEY FEEL NO FEAR, WHY SHOULD YOU?
(The Reality of the Post-Christian World)
“It may be impossible to know how many zombies are out there, if a bridge is down, or if all the boats in a marina are gone. So know your terrain. At least that factor will not change with an outbreak.” – Brooks (p. 96)
When setting out to look for supplies in a zombie-infested area, you need to understand your environment. What does the surroundings look like? Looking at the landscape of the Western Church, one key question arises: Why is it difficult for the church to connect and attract people today? Has something shifted? Is this change about issues of methodology, approach or has something greater happened. How widespread is the outbreak?
In the Western world, the Christian church has experienced a massive decline in its influence and impact on culture. Instead of responding with clear eyes and learning posture, the church seems to have adapted its approach to that of an ostrich. It has simply put its head in the sand and ignored the problem. “Christianity moved from being the dynamic, revolutionary, social, and spiritual movement to being a static religious institution with its attendant structures, priesthood, and sacraments” (Frost Exiles p. 5). This shift has brought about a virtual rigor mortis in the church; it has become rigid and lifeless.
Western Christianity is still grappling and grabbing for the way it used to be. The only problem is, its influence upon Western Society has long been shifting from the center of culture onto the margins. The sober reality is that the church’s time of prominence is long gone and it’s not coming back. “Religious faith is no longer a primary and ethical guide” (Frost p. 6). Instead of embracing this change, Christians are by in large, resisting it. This resistance further alienates them from the unbelieving masses that they are called to reach out to by the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-12). How can you reach those that you have taken intentional steps to be separated from?
As we have seen when dealing with zombies, being loud and causing a stir rarely helps you, it only attracts the enemy and death. In an attempt to regain its place in society, the church has often resorted to age-old tactics of “shock and awe.” We loudly and judgmentally proclaim our beliefs as loudly as possible in the media, with bumper stickers, over blogs and also through our callous actions in the face of the watching world. The church has adopted a mentality that is driven by the core belief that we don’t have to be kind as long as we’re right. Being right, as they see it, is the most important thing. As a result, Christians are seen in contemporary culture as, “judgmental, hypocritical, too political, and antihomosexual” (Lyons The Next Christians p. 4). There is a gulf that must be dealt with if the church is going to exist in the 21st century.
Working in ministry both inside and outside the church has afforded me the benefit of being able to see things in a unique way. It was actually my experience working in a church that drove me to work in a parachurch. I remember the moment that I officially lost faith in the institutional church. I was a youth pastor in a large church. Within the few months that I was there, our youth group more than doubled in size with around 200 teenagers attending every Wednesday. I sat across the desk of the senior pastor during one of our weekly meetings. He was not happy about the growth. “We just don’t want those kinds of kids in our church,” he exclaimed to me with conviction. By ‘those kids’ he meant, the non-Christian ones. They didn’t like the fact that teenagers that were not raised in the church didn’t act like the ones that were. That was the moment my heart for the church died. I, then, spent the next seven years in ministry working outside the walls of the church with at-risk teenagers.
I know well the gulf that exists between the church and contemporary culture and have come to the conclusion that the only way to overcome this gap is by living differently. Too often have we seen ourselves as bridge builders when some gaps are not meant to be crossed. Instead of finding ways to fix the problem, I am offering an alternative. Abandon the institutional church and go live within contemporary culture. The church understands itself to be four walls constructed to house Christians for weekly services. What if we walked away from the problem completely? In the reality of the zombie apocalypse, we must become adept at discerning what to let go of and what to hold on to. The building that we once called home before the outbreak had begun now becomes a liability to us if we are not willing to let go of it. Staying mobile and moving light are the keys to our survival. With the new reality of the post-Christian world, we must pack light because the gospel was meant to travel.
Michael Frost, in his book, Exiles: Living Missionally in a Post-Christian Culture, likens the current state of church to captives living in exile under the shadow of the dominant culture. If we begin to live in this way, our outlook changes. “Given the situation of the Church in the West, much will now depend on whether we are willing to break out of a stifling herd instinct and find God again in the context of the advancing kingdom of God” (Hirsch The Forgotten Ways p.114). Next, we must begin to understand the second new reality that the church is grappling to make sense of: globalization.
Survival Lesson #1: USE YOUR HEAD: CUT OFF THEIRS.
(My Journey Out of Tradition)
“Often, a school is your best bet-perhaps not for education but certainly for protection from an undead attack.” – Brooks (p.79)
Regardless of where you find yourself in the zombie apocalypse, one thing is true. You must keep your head and think clearly. It is the difference between life and death. I have yet to experience the walking dead, in the cinematic sense of the world, but after working for years in ministry I knew what a dead church looked like. They were everywhere; it was like a horror movie. Everywhere you looked, there were zombie churches. On the surface they looked alive, but inside they were long dead. After a while, you learn to survive inside of them. On the surface you smile and act like everything is fine. The better you fake it, the greater your chances for not getting bit. I had become a versatile chameleon, but living this way comes at a cost. On the inside, I was cynical and bitter. In 2010, I had been in vocational ministry for ten years. I had worked for a church plant, a church (as a youth pastor) and then was the director of a parachurch youth organization. I knew how to play the game, but frankly I was bored with ministry and my soul was burnt out. I was tired of playing the game and I was tried of faking it. I had lost my faith in the church and ministry, but not in Jesus; which is a dangerous place to be. It leads you to become a lone wolf. With Christianity, our faith is rarely dynamic when we practice it alone.
Doing ministry in a small rural town had become suffocating. Small churches meant small thinking. I knew I needed a change and wanted to be challenged and stretched intellectually and spiritually. I knew something was missing in my life; I just wasn’t sure what it was. That yearning led me to enroll in Fuller Theological Seminary’s Masters of Arts in Global Leadership program in the fall of 2010. I assumed that any change was a good change. In this situation, I couldn’t have been more right.
Flash forward to December 2012. I’m sitting across from a good friend of mine having coffee. I tell him that in the coming year, I’m going to plant a church. He bursts out laughing, “Ha, ha, but you hate church!?!” There was a deep change in me that had happened over the past two years. It surprised others and, frankly, surprised me. This paper is an amalgamation of my collective journey towards transformation that has occurred over the course of the MAGL program. Some of this personal renovation has taken place in the classroom setting. While other times, change has manifested in my personal life and ministry career. As I began to develop from within, the outward manifestation began to alter my journey and guide the path of my life into a new direction. I can honestly say that I am not the same person that I was when I began the program. I have discovered that there is life happening, even in the face of a zombie apocalypse. You just have to learn how live in a new way and survive. You have to also develop a keen eye to see life springing up, even in the face of death.
LESSONS FOR SURVIVING A ZOMBIE ATTACK (An Introduction)
In Max Brook’s seminal book on the topic of surviving the impending undead apocalypse, The Zombie Survival Guide: Complete Protection from the Living Dead, he outlines ten easy to follow and practical tips for staying alive. The top ten lessons for surviving a zombie attack are as follows:
1. USE YOUR HEAD: CUT OFF THEIRS.
2. THEY FEEL NO FEAR, WHY SHOULD YOU?
3. BLADES DON’T NEED RELOADING.
4. KEEP MOVING, KEEP LOW, KEEP QUIET, KEEP ALERT!
5. NO PLACE IS SAFE, ONLY SAFER.
6. IDEAL PROTECTION = TIGHT CLOTHES, SHORT HAIR.
7. GET UP THE STAIRCASE, THEN DESTROY IT.
8. ORGANIZE BEFORE THEY RISE!
9. GET OUT OF THE CAR, GET ONTO THE BIKE.
10. ZOMBIE MAYBE GONE, BUT THE THREAT LIVES ON…
We are living in time of the zombie, culturally speaking. From TV shows like The Walking Dead to the up coming movies Warm Bodies and World War Z. Vampires used to be cool, now it’s zombies. So, what is behind this cultural explosion of the undead? I think on some level, it speaks to something deep within us. It’s not simply about horror; it’s about our cultural anxieties that play against our fear of the unknown and the monsters within us. People are comfortable and want the world to remain as it is. Professor Charles Fleming, while lecturing on the lifecycle of an organization once said, “we do not fear change, what we really fear is loss.”
In the same vein, the church in the West is experiencing great loss. Like the familiar motif in zombie stories, we are facing loss and must learn to survive in a new reality against monsters that closely resemble ourselves. The reign of the Western church’s dominance is over. We find ourselves in a new world and must learn to function under a new set of rules. Like zombies, there are still churches operating under the old paradigm and they are the walking dead. So to survive we must embrace change. There are many faces to the walking dead, but the ones that we will focus on here are namely traditions and biases. Each of these stalk us, seeking to feed on our souls, stifle hope, and kill the future. The church must learn to live and survive in this near reality.
In light of the above, to be transformational and missional in today’s globalized and post-Christian world, the church must begin by rethinking leadership in terms of ethnic diversity, hierarchy and spirituality. I will explore in depth what a transformational and missional church should look like and also analyze the key leadership themes that must be incorporated for these changes to be possible.
Through the course of this, we will delve into these themes as they have impacted my life and spiritual journey. They also act as a road map to guide me as I am beginning to plant a church. This will be equal parts personal process as well as a critique of the present and future state of the Western Church. The journey towards transformation is not an easy one or for the faint of heart. It is much like surviving the zombie apocalypse. You must be smart, savvy, and you cannot accomplish this alone. As you will see, this process hasn’t been easy. There has been much fought for as well as loss. The following pages detail key and signature themes I have learned in this process of survival and change. Prepare yourself because following after our savior is rarely a PG rated affair. It can get bloody. We will begin our journey with the words that Dietrich Bonhoeffer used to speak of his own life. In Letters & Papers from Prison he spoke in these terms,
“My life has followed a straight and unbroken course… if I were to end my life here in these conditions, that would have a meaning that I think I could understand; on the other hand, everything might be a thorough preparation for a new start and a new task when peace comes” (Bonhoeffer Letters & Papers from Prison p. 272).
It is my hope that this will all be a preparation for a new start. Let us begin…